The answer turns out to be “Arrhenius, of course” and the details turn out to be not desperately interesting. But if you want to know more see Which early works are cited most frequently in climate change research literature? A bibliometric approach based on Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (no, I didn’t bother find out exactly what they meant by that) by Werner Marx, Robin Haunschild, Andreas Thor and Lutz Bornmann. h/t Retraction Watch although this appears to have nothing to do with retraction.
Most of the others aren’t really “climate change” at all – trade winds and the like. Darwin makes it in.
Fourier doesn’t appear till you get into the detail, which surprised me.